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These images form a slide show and a gestalt introduction to electronics. In which we map the techniques available to hackers and their surrounding requisite building blocks.  
These images form a slide show and a gestalt introduction to electronics. In which we map the techniques available to hackers and their surrounding requisite building blocks.  
*[[http://wiki.hacdc.org/images/8/82/Mindmap.jpg]]mindmap
*[[http://wiki.hacdc.org/images/8/82/Mindmap.jpg]]mindmap
My hacking started with music and production. it wasn't exacly the tech; more for the the ride.
My hacking started with music and production. it wasn't exacly the tech; more for the ride.
*[[http://wiki.hacdc.org/images/5/5c/Wmuc_main.jpg]] WMUC main studio
*[[http://wiki.hacdc.org/images/5/5c/Wmuc_main.jpg]] WMUC main studio
Complicated behaviour arises from iteration of simple models. Learning how to operate something like this is simpler and more subtle than it looks.
Complicated behaviour arises from iteration of simple models. Learning how to operate something like this is simpler and more subtle than it looks.
Line 38: Line 38:


==Required Materials==
==Required Materials==
(see also: our [[Suppliers|Suppliers page]])<br />
----
[[File:Digital_Multimeter.jpg|200px]][[File:Analog_Multimeter.jpg|200px]]
* Multimeter $4
* Multimeter $4
**[http://www.harborfreight.com/7-function-digital-multimeter-92020.html Source: Harbor Freight]
----
[[File:Soldering_iron.jpg|200px]]
* Soldering Iron (25-30w) $10
* Soldering Iron (25-30w) $10
* Solder  ( 22ga )  
**[http://www.harborfreight.com/30-watt-120-volt-soldering-iron-47887.html Source: Harbor Freight]
----
[[File:Solder.jpg|200px]]
* Solder  ( 22ga )
**[http://www.harborfreight.com/lead-free-rosin-core-solder-95861.html Source: Harbor Freight]
**[http://www.radioshack.com/product/index.jsp?productId=2062712 Source: Radio Shack]
**Or ANYWHERE, really.
----
[[File:Breadboard.jpg|200px]]
* Bread Board ( or [[AshClassBoard]] ) $10
* Bread Board ( or [[AshClassBoard]] ) $10
**[http://mouser.com/ProductDetail/BusBoard-Prototype-Systems/BB400/?qs=sGAEpiMZZMskUkxWo/qA8g6E2/%252b0L/2p Source: Mouser]
**[http://search.digikey.com/scripts/DkSearch/dksus.dll?Detail&name=438-1045-ND Source: Digi-Key]
----
* wire 24ga  
* wire 24ga  
----
* 30ga solid core wire
* 30ga solid core wire
* Resistors 10kohm
----
* Resistors 10kohm
----
* variable resistor  10kohm linear $1
* variable resistor  10kohm linear $1
----
* switch [[http://www.mouser.com/search/ProductDetail.aspx?qs=JTMHOUw%252b%2fhkyoxmWRloCXw%3d%3d]]
* switch [[http://www.mouser.com/search/ProductDetail.aspx?qs=JTMHOUw%252b%2fhkyoxmWRloCXw%3d%3d]]
----
* leds  (various)
* leds  (various)
----
* capacitor 470uf (ish) [[http://www.mouser.com/Search/ProductDetail.aspx?qs=Dj1PTMaP5uJBsuYHd%252b9oGQ%3d%3d]]
* capacitor 470uf (ish) [[http://www.mouser.com/Search/ProductDetail.aspx?qs=Dj1PTMaP5uJBsuYHd%252b9oGQ%3d%3d]]
----
* pn2222 transistor $.03
* pn2222 transistor $.03
----
* 1/8 male phono jack
* 1/8 male phono jack
   
   
  Read The Fine Data Sheet:  They hide secrets in the documentation.
  Read The Fine Data Sheet:  They hide secrets in the documentation.


==Metering==
==Metering==
  There are many like it but this one is mine.
  There are many like it but this one is mine.
* Naming of parts
* Naming of parts
* Should be a VOM - Volt Ohm Meter
** metering modes
** metering modes
*** restistance - Ohms of resistance
*** restistance - Ohms of resistance
Line 66: Line 91:
* Continuity testing
* Continuity testing
** set the meter to the lowest resistance mode (200ohms or auto resistance)
** set the meter to the lowest resistance mode (200ohms or auto resistance)
** or perhaps Diode check; or even beeping
** reads "off scale" when the leads are unconnected, this is an open circuit
** reads "off scale" when the leads are unconnected, this is an open circuit
** firmly touch leads together
** firmly touch leads together -loopback test
** reads near 0 if the leads are crossed   
** reads near 0 if the leads are crossed   
* Voltage testing
* Voltage testing
Line 73: Line 99:
** touch leads to metered points
** touch leads to metered points
** the reading on the meter is the difference in voltages between the leads
** the reading on the meter is the difference in voltages between the leads
** Try AC mains!! - safety second.
====SwitchLab====
* use the continuity meter to diagram the electrical layout of the switch.
* solder switch to the board.
* test under power with meter voltage setting
==Relays/Switches==
Codespeak
* SPDT  - single pole dual throw
* DPST  - dual pole single throw
* 4P10T - ???
- Map this mystery switchLab


==Wire==
The basic wire is a pipe through which electrons can flow from the lowest voltage side to the highest ([[wikipedia:Electric current#Conventional current|conventional current]]) up to the physical limits of the wire.
* Condunctor vs. Insulators
* Current limit via wire gauge [http://www.powerstream.com/Wire_Size.htm]
* Voltage limit via insulation.
* Magnetic and Electric fields surround an energized wire (what?!)
* And wire will respond with current when moved through magnetic flux
** bass pickups
** Lentz law
** Siemens, mho, ohms
* strip wire
* and don't nick the conductor
==Electromagnetics==
* Einstein's "spukhafte Fernwirkung"
* Quantum Electrodynamics
** Electron and photons interact - somehow
* Gauss, Maxwell and
* Permanent magnets useful - locked domains
** Ferro materials, Ni, Co, Sr, Rb, Nb, Nd, Cr and Fe.
** Except when they aren't - curie temperature.
* Hall effect - sensing - spaceship drives
* Motors, linear, rotary, vibrational, direct ( magnetohydrodynamic)
* Radios
** EM probe demo
** EM spectrum
*** DC,  ELF, SLF (submarines, blue whales), AF, LF,HF, (Short wave), VHF, UHF, Microwave, weird stuff, gamma rays (the incredible hulk, gian ants).


==Soldering==
==Soldering==
  Hold the cold end.
  Hold the cold end.
Soldering ( for our purposes )  is the process of joining  electrical contacts with a low melting point metal to make a mechanically and electrically strong connection.
Soldering ( for our purposes )  is the process of joining  electrical contacts with a low melting point metal to make a mechanically and electrically strong connection.
* Restrain long hair/clothing/jewelry.
* Restrain long hair/clothing/jewelry.
* Clean both parts of waxes, oils or debris.
* Clean both parts of waxes, oils or debris.
** Ethanol/Methanol/SLX
** Flux/Rosin/Dry
* Mechanically fit connections together
* Mechanically fit connections together
* Clean and wet the iron
* Clean and wet the iron
* Heat both parts until hot  
** Tip should be immaculate and bright
* Heat both parts until hot
** Cheat, use another heating element
*** quartz floodlight, sterno, propane or mean stare.
** but not too hot - see blue smoke lab
* Apply just enough solder to wet the contact surfaces
* Apply just enough solder to wet the contact surfaces
* Wait for the connection to shine smoothly
* Wait for the connection to shine smoothly
* remove the iron an test the connection
* remove the iron an test the connection
** yes it's hot stupid.
** the meter should find near 0 ohms  of resistance between the two parts even when mechanically stressed.
** the meter should find near 0 ohms  of resistance between the two parts even when mechanically stressed.
** the meter should read "off scale" to everything that should be isolated
** the meter should read "off scale" to everything that should be isolated
*Splice practice
** Western Union Splice
** Pigtail Splice


====SwitchLab====
==Speakermaking lab==
* use the continuity meter to diagram the electrical layout of the switch.
materials:
* solder switch to the board.
* junk wire, lots of it
* test under power with meter voltage setting
* magnet ( stronger is better )
 
Test stuff:
* multimeter
* signal generator, (or music source)
* power amp
 
Construction:
* Make coil of wire 24ga 1" dia, 50-400 turns.
** use a form, marker, tp tube, pvc pipe
** Measure impedance > 1.5 ohm
* Stick coil of wire to diaphram
* Make  stator/armature
** stick magnet to something - not too ferrous
* stick diaphram near armature (correct axis??)
* connect to amplifier; apply Rock!
 
Exercises for suckers:
* Use the lentz law to calculate the force generated by thingy.
* Why 8ohm speakers in the house?
 
==Resistor==
Not like the NYC variety
Resistors impede the flow of electrons across them; usually to protect components from excessive current.
 
[[Image:resistoriv.png]]


==Wire==
* [[wikipedia:Ohm's_law|Ohm's law]]
The basic wire is a pipe through which electrons can flow from the lowest voltage side to the highest ([[wikipedia:Electric current#Conventional current|conventional current]]) up to the physical limits of the wire.
* Diagonal IV curve.
* symmetric


* Current limit via wire gauge [http://www.powerstream.com/Wire_Size.htm]
* Voltage limit via insulation.
* Magnetic and Electric fields surround an energized wire (what?!)
* And wire will respond with current when moved through magnetic flux


==Relays/Switches==
=====ResistorLab=====
Codespeak
* solder resistors, meter and record;
* SPDT  - single pole dual throw
* compare to ohms law math
* DPST  - dual pole single throw
* 4P10T - ???


- Map this mystery switchLab
Electromechanical relay is a switch that's controlled electrically.
===pros===
* Easy to design for
* debugging (listen for satisfying click)
* excelent isolation
* high power control/$
===cons===
* high drive current (mostly)
* noisy (mostly)
* slow
* moving parts (eeew)
[http://ecommas.tycoelectronics.com/commerce/DocumentDelivery/DDEController?Action=showdoc&DocId=Data+Sheet%7F1308242_T77%7F1104%7Fpdf%7FEnglish%7FENG_DS_1308242_T77_1104.pdf a typical relay]
- map this mystery relay lab




Line 131: Line 217:
* stow fingers away from wire
* stow fingers away from wire
* turn on switch
* turn on switch


==Power==
==Power==
Line 148: Line 235:




==Resistor==
Electromechanical relay is a switch that's controlled electrically.
Not like the NYC variety
===pros===
Resistors impede the flow of electrons across them; usually to protect components from excessive current.
* Easy to design for
* debugging (listen for satisfying click)
* excelent isolation
* high power control/$
===cons===
* high drive current (mostly)
* noisy (mostly)
* slow
* moving parts (eeew)
[http://ecommas.tycoelectronics.com/commerce/DocumentDelivery/DDEController?Action=showdoc&DocId=Data+Sheet%7F1308242_T77%7F1104%7Fpdf%7FEnglish%7FENG_DS_1308242_T77_1104.pdf a typical relay]
- map this mystery relay lab
 
 
 


[[Image:resistoriv.png]]


* [[wikipedia:Ohm's_law|Ohm's law]]
* Diagonal IV curve.
* symmetric
=====ResistorLab=====
* solder resistors, meter and record;
* compare to ohms law math
====Diode====
====Diode====
[[Image:diodeiv.png]]
[[Image:diodeiv.png]]
Line 182: Line 275:
==Printed Circuits==
==Printed Circuits==
==Capacitor==
==Capacitor==
  470uf electrolytic cap
  470μf electrolytic cap
[[Image:capt.png]]
[[Image:capt.png]]
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor wikipedia capacitor]
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor wikipedia capacitor]
<math>\operator {work} (V) =
\frac {1}{2}
2)Cv^2 </math> Hmm.. no teX support here.
====Applications====
*Filters
**Decoupling - Ripple rejection
**Blocking - DC Bias rejection
**Use in networks - equalization networks
*Storage
**Pump and dump  - Photoflash.
**Tank application - DC - DC converters
*Esoteric
**Sensors - Strain gauge
**Microphones - Old school
**nonlinear math - Calculating logs/exponents.


==Transistor==
==Transistor==
  PN2222 N channel transistor
  PN2222 N channel transistor
Elliot substitute-taught a class on transistor amplifiers...
Notes in PDF are here:
[[Media:transistorLecture.pdf]]
===little amplifierlab===
===little amplifierlab===
*class A amp
*class A amp
*DC blocking caps
*DC blocking caps
*bias resistors
*bias resistors
*fixed gain
*fixed gain
*inverted waveform  
*inverted waveform
===construction intro===
*breadboard intro
*soldering intro
*led circuit


==Digital Logic==
==Digital Logic==
Line 207: Line 327:


[[Category:Classes]]
[[Category:Classes]]
= Links and class notes =
*7-28
**[http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_3/chpt_2/8.html How bipolar junction transistors actually work]

Latest revision as of 22:25, 23 November 2010

Electronics Class

This class is targeted at the beginner who wants to learn electronics. It would make a fine prerequisite to the Microcontroller Course or the HAMClass

tease

These images form a slide show and a gestalt introduction to electronics. In which we map the techniques available to hackers and their surrounding requisite building blocks.

My hacking started with music and production. it wasn't exacly the tech; more for the ride.

  • [[2]] WMUC main studio

Complicated behaviour arises from iteration of simple models. Learning how to operate something like this is simpler and more subtle than it looks.

  • [[3]] wheatstone broadcast console

Easier to see is block diagram form; a gestural view of a complex system. WMUC recording suites and broadcast control rooms. Computing.

  • [[4]] signal diagram

Why study DC/baseband/RF electronics; anachronism?

  • [[5]] chill on the roof.

Space shuttle shots; APRS , RACES, field day. Social technical effects require proficiency.

  • [[6]] W3EAX tower

Small systems scale into big ones. 40,000 people at Operation ceasefire (united for peace& justice) '05 at the national mall. Standing between SS, Park police and thousands of protesters.

  • [[7]] ceasefire stage
  • [[8]] ceasefire 40k

No always smooth sailing.

  • [[9]] mars needs bolts

Building whimsey.

  • [[10]] lightup dance floor

Computer control over physical objects. microcontrollers + christmas tree lights.

  • [[11]] dance floor controller

Not always smooth. Electrical compatibility != political compatability

  • [[12]] hhr - phear the transaxle

More small systems iterated.

  • [[13]] fireworks diagram

DIY Ignition source in Berlin. in a pinch you don't need a parts catalog.

  • [[14]] igniter controller

Apologies to Dakami

  • [[15]] fireworks crates

Simple systems, RC control, Robots and igniters.

  • [[16]] wm greek fire

Recently robotics have become accessible to experimenters. Bluto cuts, welds and hugs.

  • [[17]] Welding robots!

Required Materials

(see also: our Suppliers page)


Digital Multimeter.jpgAnalog Multimeter.jpg


Soldering iron.jpg


Solder.jpg


Breadboard.jpg


  • wire 24ga

  • 30ga solid core wire

  • Resistors 10kohm

  • variable resistor 10kohm linear $1


  • leds (various)

  • capacitor 470uf (ish) [[19]]

  • pn2222 transistor $.03

  • 1/8 male phono jack
Read The Fine Data Sheet:  They hide secrets in the documentation.

Metering

There are many like it but this one is mine.
  • Naming of parts
  • Should be a VOM - Volt Ohm Meter
    • metering modes
      • restistance - Ohms of resistance
      • voltage - Volts
      • Current - Amps/Milliamps - check the leads
      • diode check - see [Diodes]
    • leads - plugged into the right ports?
  • Continuity testing
    • set the meter to the lowest resistance mode (200ohms or auto resistance)
    • or perhaps Diode check; or even beeping
    • reads "off scale" when the leads are unconnected, this is an open circuit
    • firmly touch leads together -loopback test
    • reads near 0 if the leads are crossed
  • Voltage testing
    • set meter to 20Vdc or VautoDC
    • touch leads to metered points
    • the reading on the meter is the difference in voltages between the leads
    • Try AC mains!! - safety second.


SwitchLab

  • use the continuity meter to diagram the electrical layout of the switch.
  • solder switch to the board.
  • test under power with meter voltage setting

Relays/Switches

Codespeak

  • SPDT - single pole dual throw
  • DPST - dual pole single throw
  • 4P10T - ???
- Map this mystery switchLab


Wire

The basic wire is a pipe through which electrons can flow from the lowest voltage side to the highest (conventional current) up to the physical limits of the wire.

  • Condunctor vs. Insulators
  • Current limit via wire gauge [20]
  • Voltage limit via insulation.
  • Magnetic and Electric fields surround an energized wire (what?!)
  • And wire will respond with current when moved through magnetic flux
    • bass pickups
    • Lentz law
    • Siemens, mho, ohms
  • strip wire
  • and don't nick the conductor

Electromagnetics

  • Einstein's "spukhafte Fernwirkung"
  • Quantum Electrodynamics
    • Electron and photons interact - somehow
  • Gauss, Maxwell and
  • Permanent magnets useful - locked domains
    • Ferro materials, Ni, Co, Sr, Rb, Nb, Nd, Cr and Fe.
    • Except when they aren't - curie temperature.
  • Hall effect - sensing - spaceship drives
  • Motors, linear, rotary, vibrational, direct ( magnetohydrodynamic)
  • Radios
    • EM probe demo
    • EM spectrum
      • DC, ELF, SLF (submarines, blue whales), AF, LF,HF, (Short wave), VHF, UHF, Microwave, weird stuff, gamma rays (the incredible hulk, gian ants).

Soldering

Hold the cold end.

Soldering ( for our purposes ) is the process of joining electrical contacts with a low melting point metal to make a mechanically and electrically strong connection.

  • Restrain long hair/clothing/jewelry.
  • Clean both parts of waxes, oils or debris.
    • Ethanol/Methanol/SLX
    • Flux/Rosin/Dry
  • Mechanically fit connections together
  • Clean and wet the iron
    • Tip should be immaculate and bright
  • Heat both parts until hot
    • Cheat, use another heating element
      • quartz floodlight, sterno, propane or mean stare.
    • but not too hot - see blue smoke lab
  • Apply just enough solder to wet the contact surfaces
  • Wait for the connection to shine smoothly
  • remove the iron an test the connection
    • yes it's hot stupid.
    • the meter should find near 0 ohms of resistance between the two parts even when mechanically stressed.
    • the meter should read "off scale" to everything that should be isolated
  • Splice practice
    • Western Union Splice
    • Pigtail Splice

Speakermaking lab

materials:

  • junk wire, lots of it
  • magnet ( stronger is better )

Test stuff:

  • multimeter
  • signal generator, (or music source)
  • power amp

Construction:

  • Make coil of wire 24ga 1" dia, 50-400 turns.
    • use a form, marker, tp tube, pvc pipe
    • Measure impedance > 1.5 ohm
  • Stick coil of wire to diaphram
  • Make stator/armature
    • stick magnet to something - not too ferrous
  • stick diaphram near armature (correct axis??)
  • connect to amplifier; apply Rock!

Exercises for suckers:

  • Use the lentz law to calculate the force generated by thingy.
  • Why 8ohm speakers in the house?

Resistor

Not like the NYC variety

Resistors impede the flow of electrons across them; usually to protect components from excessive current.

Resistoriv.png


ResistorLab
  • solder resistors, meter and record;
  • compare to ohms law math



BlueSmokeLab
Get this out of the way early (and often)
  • turn off the switch
  • Solder the 30ga wire ends on to the lab 0 area
  • stow fingers away from wire
  • turn on switch


Power

  • Measured in watts (usally)
* .01w laser pointer
* .25w cell phone
* 1w 
* 15w car stereo
* 25w soldering iron
* 100w light bulb
* 1500w hair dryer
* 200 horsepower (750w/hp)
* 3 tons of Air conditioner capacity (3.5kw/ton)
  • The notion of instant work
  • Energy or work is expressed in joules (watt*second). Or perhaps (Kw*H)
  • Power(watts) = Current (Amps) * Volts


Electromechanical relay is a switch that's controlled electrically.

pros

  • Easy to design for
  • debugging (listen for satisfying click)
  • excelent isolation
  • high power control/$

cons

  • high drive current (mostly)
  • noisy (mostly)
  • slow
  • moving parts (eeew)

a typical relay - map this mystery relay lab



Diode

Diodeiv.png

ScaryDataSheetLab
  • a favorite led [21]
  • LED ( Light emitting diode ) are diodes with a clear case.
  • electrons only permitted to flow in one direction: cathode to anode
    • there are exceptions [diode breakdown voltage]
  • discontinuous IV curve
  • diode logic
  • the cathode is marked
  • the diode check function of the meter can reveal the correct polarity of a mystery diode with a suspect cathode mark.

Light Emitting Diode

  • the short lead is the cathode
  • LED's need current limiting (see BlueSmokeLab)
LEDLab
  • solder in 1kOhm resistor for the led , although you may use another if you can justify the value
  • Solder in the LED, with the short lead towards the ground.

Motor

Printed Circuits

Capacitor

470μf electrolytic cap

Capt.png

wikipedia capacitor <math>\operator {work} (V) = \frac {1}{2} 2)Cv^2 </math> Hmm.. no teX support here.

Applications

  • Filters
    • Decoupling - Ripple rejection
    • Blocking - DC Bias rejection
    • Use in networks - equalization networks
  • Storage
    • Pump and dump - Photoflash.
    • Tank application - DC - DC converters
  • Esoteric
    • Sensors - Strain gauge
    • Microphones - Old school
    • nonlinear math - Calculating logs/exponents.

Transistor

PN2222 N channel transistor
Elliot substitute-taught a class on transistor amplifiers...
Notes in PDF are here:
Media:transistorLecture.pdf


little amplifierlab

  • class A amp
  • DC blocking caps
  • bias resistors
  • fixed gain
  • inverted waveform

construction intro

  • breadboard intro
  • soldering intro
  • led circuit

Digital Logic

  • AND C = A & B
  • OR C = A | B
  • NOT C = !A
  • NOR C = !(A|B)
  • NAND C = !(A&B)
  • MUX C = select A(n) based on B(n)

IC

LM386 Audio Amplifier [22]

Links and class notes