WWholoW (World Wide Holo-grid Web)
1. The remote past At 1900, Nikola Tesla developed an idea of the first world wide transmission system. Lots of misunderstandings are circulating around as only a few remember - or can decode - the true operational mechanism behind the original system which was basically an "electrostatic" communication system and had no relationship whatsoever with Marconi's Hertzian dipole. It also had a not very well studied relation with the so called "crawling" surface or ground waves which do not constitute radiation but they are a kind of unusual type of spherical "near field" although in a sense they also propagate. This was later mathematically verified by Sommerfeld and Zenneck's work at around 1910. (see here for a brief explanation) and here for Surface Waves. A full literature review is given here. It must be noted that experts still disagree on the exact way of excitement of such modes by finite apertures but this is mostly due to the fact that noone thinks nowadays to work on wavelengths of the order of the Earth's diameter. An exact treatment of the conditions of incidence to cause these modes to appear inside a "stratified" dielectric medium was first given by J. R. Wait and recent references can be found in these lectures by Daniel Sjoberg. An interesting example of a TM surface mode on a Power Line is given here (Tmark of Corridor Sys. Inc.). An even more interesting possibility of altered dispersion relations allowing superluminal Zenneck and X-modes has been recently proposed by Rafagni, Mugnai PRE 1998.
2. A "Clockwork Orange" Around 50's, two important contributions were added. The first was the discovery of Holography (which is basically associated with the FFT of an image and its reproduction via an appropriate reference beam.) by the Hungarian scientist Dennis Gabor. The second was the re-enactment of the old Tesla idea this time for communication with nuclear submarines during submersion. The reason was that no other frequency can penetrate below 100m of sea water but only those of the ULF band near the so called Shumann Resonance of the Earth Ionosphere Spherical Waveguide which naturally resonates near 7.83 Hz. Several US bases were then established around the world on a Project tha tbecame known as 'SANGUINE' (from the latin for orange) from 1965 - 1973. The official report can be found in a special IEEE Proceedings issue of 1974. The Soviets soon followed with their own ZEUS system parts of which may still be operational today and one of its most known stations near Pripyat (Chernobyl area) also known as DUGA-3. A comprehensive analysis by some ham radio guys in the know can be found here and here. Immediately after closing down SANGUINE, a Greek-American scientist in Meryland, Dennis Papadopoulos proposed a new patent for the excitation of very low frequency modes using microwaves for thermalization of the upper ionosphere. This was the birth of the well known HAARP system as it finally became known after the advent of two more patents by Bernard Eastlund. Details are by now spread around the internet and in Wikipedia by now. It is notable that at the last page of the 74 special IEEE issue mention is made of the use of cold plasma explosions in the upper ionosphere for the creation of even lower bands near 1Hz! (One can only grasp the magnitude of such a wavelength by comparing it with the Earth - Moon distance.)It is also notable that the Schumann band can be superposed to that of the brain waves of most higher mammals. For the last case one may see what technician Mark Dow from Oregon's BDLab thinks about Phase Locked Oscillators (see "Miscellaneous Notes" at end of page) A comprehensive article on Schumann Resonances can be found here Schumann PDF Additionally, it seems pretty interesting that after the fall of USSR these strange photos of weird installations in Russian forests came about Russian Towers Photos Just by looking at them one can only wonder how is it possible that these things were conceived as a kind of antenna system. Unless they were no ordinary antennas, which one can think about by just looking at the original Tesla patent were the ground electrode is buried deep underneath the earth. (Could they be antennas for special ground waves?) It also reported from time to time form ham radio amateurs interested in the ULF/ELF range that strange signals of unkown origin in these bands were heard from time to time, reminding of the "Woodpecker signals" case. For similar reports look here and here.
3. The "remote" future The possibilities of combining diffraction by appropriately spaced earth/aerial transmiting stations with ionospheric waveguiding opens the road to a kind of World Wide Holographic Grid which might prove robust enough to store and retrieve information at a global scale without any need for current mobile/WiFi tehcnology. The amount of information storage, the update rate and the total throuhput cannot be computed that easily at present. Nevertheless, an additional possibility exists for utilising an unusual property of photons (albeit with powerful transmiters of a very unusual type). It is for a long time known that in very high frequencies, there is a class of lasers exhibiting the property of "Anti-bunching" statistics (mean/dispersion much lesser one). This is associated with the weird property of a kind of "quantum revival" even under extreme noise. That is to say that in practice, such a system would partly remain operational even during an electric thunderstorm or maybe an all out nuclear war! It is notable, that Fritz-Albert Pop in Germany has verified for the last twenty years the emission of non-thermal photons of a similar nature (statistics) from living cells which possibly originate in some obscure quantum mechanical excitations of DNA molecules although this is still under research. The second question then is what it would mean to have a 10Hz photon with a similar statistics and building a special diffraction pattern out of this. Apart from the energy beign extremely low to detect (E ~ frequency) there is the tremendous problem of Heisenberg type uncertainties affecting both amplitude - phase and/or Energy/Sampling time. But there is an additional trick not known to the many (I do not even know why!). This possibility has to do with the existence of Parallel Electric and Magnetic Modes in closed cavities. Such configurations are often related with the notion of curl eigen-fields or "Beltrami" modes and they have been realized in laser cavities. (see Bretenaker, LeFlock, PRA (1991)) The strange thing though is that someone was looking after those modes even as far back as 1968(!) as one can verify from some obscure articles in the Geophysical literature. S. B. Mende JGR 73 As long as one can establish a similar system of standing waves, one can then choose to simply measure the difference between left and right polarized photons which macroscopically is known as the Mode Helicity. This of course will be no ordinary dipole antenna or anything like it but it is not beyond current technological capabilities. The other thing that counts in the above argument is the fact, that as Maxwell's equations are a kind of ideal (Euler) hydrodynamics they also happen to preserve similar topological characteristics as in the case of ordinary fluids. And the nice thing is that one of the conserved quantities in fluids in closed cavities is exactly the Helicity! Hence, given an established degree of helicity in the ionospheric waveguide (ideal conditions!) than any perturbation will immediately have to propagate. But here comes the crucial question. In the absence of any material (plasma, dust, etc)what is the average speed of propagation of helicity disturbances when it comes to a pure E/M Mode?. Should it be exactly c? Or is there a hidden connection with automatic spin synchronization known from quantum mechanics?