WinBook Security IPCam

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WinBook Security IPCam

This page documents teardown and reverse engineering project on A WinBook Security IPCam. Winbook is MicroCenter's store brand of IP Camera.

Introduction

We'd love to have some nice open source IP Cameras, who wouldn't? Unfortunately we've just got a shitty proprietary one. Fortunately, it's easy to hack.

The Winbook IP Cam (I believe it's a T7838) in the space uses a RALINK RT5350 (datasheet). The board we have includes holes for a UART serial pinout. We had success with a TTL USB serial adapter at 57600 baud. Root is available on serial with no password. The stock password is unknown at this time but can be reset to allow more comfortable remote telnet access; however, it resets every time we boot.

Buy

They seem to be available used/new from $40-$60 on ebay and amazon. Maybe they can be got from MicroCenter as well.

Filesystem

# ls /
var     usr     tmp     system  sys     sbin    proc    param   mnt     media   lib     init    home    etc_ro  etc     dev     bin
# ls system/
system    daemon    Wireless  init      www
# ls param
sysmacreset      vstarparam.bin   alarmlog.bin     alarmlog1.bin    systemindex.txt  systemlog.txt    login.cgi        date.bin
# df
Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
rootfs                    3008      3008         0 100% /
/dev/root                 3008      3008         0 100% /
/dev/mtdblock6            3072      2608       464  85% /system
/dev/mtdblock7             512       260       252  51% /param

/ is read only, /system and /param appear to be writeable and persist across boots. Files may be downloaded for comfortable reverse engineering via copy to webroot.

Init

# ls /system/init/
ipcam.sh
# cat /system/init/ipcam.sh
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/system/system/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
export PATH=/system/system/bin:$PATH
telnetd
chmod a+x /system/system/bin/daemon.vstar.v13
chmod a+x /system/system/bin/encoder
/system/system/bin/daemon.vstar.v13 &
/system/system/bin/cmd_thread &
/system/system/bin/gmail_thread &

System/System

# ls /system/system/*   
/system/system/lib:

/system/system/drivers:

/system/system/bin:
unzip1            cmd_thread        upnpc-static      ssmtp             jpeg
daemon.vstar.v13  gmail_thread      encoder           mailx             ftp
#

Webroot

webroot is at

/system/www

writeable and persistent.

Important Configs and Auth

/etc/passwd
/etc/passwd-
/param/login.cgi

login.cgi has the login/auth for the webservice.

There is no shadow file but the passwd file appears to have a password hash in base64. This is probably easily bruteforceable.

Here is the initial root password hash: OYZVRABjiXqqQ

Here is the hash for 'hacdc': ZnfPmQ6KIvlTA

And after a reboot, here is the hash for 'hacdc': 4.n5RnxbkaMcU

Change Password for remote access

Since the password is unknown, to obtain easy telnet access, you can append something like

echo 'sleep 40 && /sbin/chpasswd.sh root xxxx' >> /system/init/ipcam.sh

Probably good to backup ipcam.sh before clobbering it with echo >.

Pictures

HowTO stream video over H264?

It seems that the encoder binary binds to 8600 and streams H.264; as of yet I'm not sure how to access that.

cat /proc

# cat /proc/version
Linux version 2.6.21 (root@mailzxh-desktop) (gcc version 3.4.2) #744 Tue Jul 23 17:23:52 CST 2013
# cat /proc/cpuinfo
system type             : Ralink SoC
processor               : 0
cpu model               : MIPS 24K V4.12
BogoMIPS                : 239.10
wait instruction        : yes
microsecond timers      : yes
tlb_entries             : 32
extra interrupt vector  : yes
hardware watchpoint     : yes
ASEs implemented        : mips16 dsp
VCED exceptions         : not available
VCEI exceptions         : not available
# cat /proc/meminfo
MemTotal:        29336 kB
MemFree:          7104 kB
Buffers:          1004 kB
Cached:           4308 kB
SwapCached:          0 kB
Active:           4936 kB
Inactive:         4104 kB
SwapTotal:           0 kB
SwapFree:            0 kB
Dirty:               0 kB
Writeback:           0 kB
AnonPages:        3756 kB
Mapped:           5464 kB
Slab:             5432 kB
SReclaimable:      616 kB
SUnreclaim:       4816 kB
PageTables:        364 kB
NFS_Unstable:        0 kB
Bounce:              0 kB
CommitLimit:     14668 kB
Committed_AS:    14096 kB
VmallocTotal:  1048404 kB
VmallocUsed:      6596 kB
VmallocChunk:  1040520 kB
# cat /proc/mtd
dev:    size   erasesize  name
mtd0: 00800000 00010000 "ALL"
mtd1: 00030000 00010000 "Bootloader"
mtd2: 00010000 00010000 "Config"
mtd3: 00010000 00010000 "Factory"
mtd4: 00100000 00010000 "Kernel"
mtd5: 00330000 00010000 "RootFS"
mtd6: 00300000 00010000 "sys"
mtd7: 00080000 00010000 "param"

Furthur Reading

https://hackaday.com/2016/03/28/tearing-down-an-ip-camera/

https://jelmertiete.com/2016/03/14/IoT-IP-camera-teardown-and-getting-root-password/

https://blog.tho.ms/hacks/2016/08/28/openwrt-on-logilink-wc0030a.html

https://wiki.openwrt.org/toh/views/toh_dev_platforms?dataflt%5BPlatform*~%5D=RT5350